QUOTED IN THIS BOOK
Baker, Robert A.,[Baptist Seminary Textbook] A Summary of Christian History [p194, 250] (Nashville: Broadman, 1959),
11, 43. This Southern Baptist textbook states, "The leaders [before A.D. 100] usually worked with their hands for their
material needs. There was no artificial distinction between clergy and laity." ... "The earliest bishops or presbyters
engaged in secular labor to make their living and performed the duties of their church office when not at work." 218
Blomberg,Craig L., see Introduction to Biblical Interpretation
Bromiley, Geoffrey W. see Wycliffe Bible Dictionary of Theology, tithing
Catholic Encyclopedia 1912 [p259], tithe; tithing. AIn the beginning [provision] was supplied by the spontaneous support of the faithful. In the course
of time, however, as the Church expanded and various institutions arose, it became necessary to make laws which would insure
the proper and permanent support of the clergy. The payment of tithes was adopted from the Old Law, and early writers speak
of it as a divine ordinance and an obligation of the conscience. The earliest positive legislation on the subject seems to
be contained in the letter of the bishops assembled at Tours in 567 and the Canons of the Council
of Macon in 585.@
Catholic, New Catholic Encyclopedia [p12], s.v. "tithe; tithing"
"In the Deuteromic code the tithe is limited to grain. wine adn oil (Deu. 12:6, 11, 17; 14:22).
These texts more or less equate the tithe with other ritual offerings adn sacrifices."  "No law of tithing
is found in the New Testament, although the principle of church support is laid down in Matt. 10:10 (see also Luke 10:7) and
echoed in 1 Corinthians 9:13-14."
Lewis Sperry [p224-226], (tithing) Major Bible Themes, Revised, rev. John Walvoord (Grand Rapids:
Academie Books), 253-55. Founder of Dallas Theological Seminary.
"In matters pertaining to the giving of
money, the grace principle involves the believer's recognition of God's sovereign authority over all that the Christian
is and has, and contrasts with the Old Testament legal system of tithing which was in force as a part of the law until the
law was done away with (John 1:16-17; Rom. 6:14; 7:1-6; 2 Cor. 3:1-18; Gal. 3:19-25; 5:18; Eph. 2:15; Col. 2:14). Though certain
principles of the law were carried forward and restated under grace, tithing, like Sabbath observance, is never imposed on
the believer in this dispensation. Since the Lord's Day superseded the legal Sabbath and is adapted to the principles
of grace as the Sabbath could not be, so tithing has been superseded by a new system of giving which is adapted to the teachings
of grace, as tithing could not be."
"C. Their giving was not by commandment [1 Cor. 8:8], nor of necessity [2 Cor.
9:7]. Under the law, a tenth was commanded and its payment was a necessity; under grace, God is not seeking the gift, but
an expression of devotion from the giver. Under grace no law is imposed and no proportion to be given is stipulated, and,
while it is true that God works in the yielded heart both to will and to do His good pleasure (Phil. 2:13), He finds pleasure
only in that gift which is given cheerfully, or more literally, "hilariously" (2 Cor. 9:7)...."
"D. The early Christians, first of all, gave themselves. Acceptable giving is preceded by a complete giving of
oneself (2 Cor. 8:5). This suggests the important truth that giving under grace, like giving under the law, is limited to
a certain class of people. Tithing was never imposed by God on any other than the nation Israel (Lev. 27:34; Num. 18:23-24;
"F. God sustains the giver. God will sustain grace-giving with limitless temporal
resources (2 Cor. 9:8-10; Luke 6:38). In this connection it may be seen that those who give as much as a tenth are usually
prospered in temporal things, but since the believer can have no relation to the law (Gal. 5:1), it is evident that this prosperity
is the fulfillment of the promise under grace, rather than the fulfillment of promises under the law. No blessings are thus
dependent on the exact tithing...." 266
Code of Jewish Law [p62, 194, 248] tithing
Croteau, David, Columbia Theological Seminary (formerly Liberty Baptist University) theologian, graduate of SEBTS. See section,
Southern Baptists, with Andreas Kostenberger article.
H. E., (tithing) [Baptist Seminary Textbook] The New Testament World [p194], 3rd. ed., rev. (Nashville: Broadman, 1937), 149,
217, 221 (Southern Baptist).
"Among the Jews professional life was limited. The one widely extensive profession
was that of rabbi, if profession it might be called, for most rabbis followed some trade or secular pursuit for a livelihood,
while devoting all the time possible to the study and teaching of the law. . . . Every Jewish boy was expected to learn some
trade. Rabbinic tradition declared that ?whoever does not teach his son a trade is as if he brought him up to be a robber'"
(p. 149) (italics mine).
"The prevalent use of tents [by travelers] made the tent-making trade a lucrative
occupation. One belonging to the same trade-guild, religious cult, or having any other personal relationship to any resident
of the locality could nearly always find welcome more or less genuine in a private home. . . . This was the prevailing manner
in which the first Christian missionaries were provided for, though likely the entertainment was tendered them without cost
(cf. 2 John 10-11; 3 John 5-8)" (p. 221).
Edersheim, Alfred (tithing) [p12, 42, 57, 63, 185, 195, 247, 248,
250] (1825-1889); extremely well-respected Anglican theologian.
Temple and Its Ministry, chapter 19, p379: "And it is remarkable, that the Law seems to regard Israel as intended to be only
an agricultural people--no contribution being provided for from trade or merchandise." [pg. 12]
Sketches of Jewish Social Life, Hendrickson Pub, [p118] Pg. 297
as for the occupation of ordinary life, it was indeed quite true that every Jew was bound to learn some trade or business.
But this was not to divert him from study; quite the contrary. It was regarded as a profanation--or at least declared such--to
make use of one's learning for secular purposes, whether of gain or of honor. The great Hillel had it (Ab. I. 13); ?He
who serves himself by the crown [the Torah] shall fade away'."
page 169; 220
"Thus . . . to come to the subject of this chapter . . . we now understand how
so many of the disciples and followers of the Lord gained their living by some craft; how in the same spirit the Master Himself
condescended to the trade of his adoptive father; and how the greatest of his apostles throughout earned his bread through
the labor of his hands, probably following, like the Lord Jesus, the trade of his father. For it was a principle, frequently
expressed, if possible ?not to forsake the trade of the father'"
page 172 297
"And this same love of honest labor, the same spirit of manly independence, the
same horror of trafficking with the law, and using it either as a ?crown or as a spade,' was certainly characteristic
of the best Rabbis."
Sketches, page 173 "For, in point of fact, with few exceptions,
all the leading Rabbinical authorities were working at some trade, till at last it became quite an affectation to engage in
hard bodily labor. . ."
Encyclopedia Americana [p6, 259] ; "tithe"
was not practised in the early Christian church but gradually became common (in the Roman Catholic church in western Europe)
by the 6th Century. The Council of Tours in 567 and the 2nd Council of Macon in 585 advocated tithing. Made obligatory
by civil law in the Carolingian empire in 765 and in England in the 10th Century... The Reformation did not abolish tithing
and the practice was continued in the Roman Catholic church and in Protestant countries (until it was) gradually replaced
by other forms of taxation. The Roman Catholic church still prescribes tithes in countries where they are sanctioned by law,
and some Protestant bodies consider tithes obligatory."
Elwell, Water A., (tithing)
College, Editor, Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of the Bible; (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1996), s.v. "tithe."
[p207] "Paul's vocabulary and teaching suggest that giving is voluntary and that there is no set percentage. Following
the example of Christ who gave even his life (2 Cor. 8:9), we should cheerfully give as much as we have decided (2 Cor. 9:7)
based on how much the Lord has prospered us (1 Cor. 16:2), knowing that we reap in proportion to what we sow (2 Cor. 9:6)
and that we will ultimately give account for our deeds (Rom. 14:12). 236
Encyclopedia Judaica [p44, 71] "tithe; tithing"
"As may be learned from 1 Sam. 8:15, 17 and from Ugarit the tithe could also be
a royal tax which the king could exact and give to his officials. This ambiguity of the tithe, as a royal due on the one hand,
and as a sacred donation on the other, is to be explained by the fact that the temples to which the tithe was assigned were
royal temples (cf. Amos 7:13) and, as such, the property and treasures in them were put at the king's disposal. . . ."
"As is well known, the kings controlled the treasures of palace and temple alike, which is understandable,
since they were responsible for the maintenance of the sanctuary and its service. . . . It stands to reason that the tithe,
which originally was a religious tribute, came to be channeled to the court, and was therefore supervised by royal authorities."
Encyclopedia of Southern Baptists [p269] tithing. [REFERENCED IN THE BOOK] This entire document is on my web site with
my comments. It has both pro and con comments.
Epp, Theodore, (tithing) Moses, Vol III [p143], founder of Back to the Bible Radio Broadcast. "If the Christian's
standard of living is not the law, what is his standard of living? Basicly, the standard for a aChristian is to do the will
of God by the enabling grace that is supplied in Christ Jesus our LOrd through the Holy Spirit."
Fee, Gordon and Douglas Stuart, (tithing) How to Read the Bible For All Its Worth [p134], seminary textbook. "The Old Testament
is not our testament. The Old Testament represents an Old Covenant, which is one we are no longer obligated to keep. Therefore
we can hardly begin by assuming that the Old Covenant should automatically be binding upon us. We have to assume, in fact,
that none of its stipulations (laws) are binding upon us unless they are renewed in the New Covenant. That is, unless an Old
Testament law is somehow restated or reinforced in the New Testament, it is no longer directly binding on God's people
(cf. Rom. 6:14-15)." 138
Harrisohn, Evereett F. see Wycliffe Bible Dictionary of Theology ; tithing
Hasting's Dictionary of the Apostolic Church, "tithe; tithing"
is admitted universally that the payment of tithes or the tenths of possessions, for sacred purposes did not find a place
within the Christian Church during the age covered by the apostles and their immediate successors
Henry, Carl F. see Wycliffe Bible Dictionary of Theology (tithing)
Holman Bible Dictionary and Concordance (Giant Print) [p223] (Nashville: Holman, 1999), s.v. "tithe; tithing."
[Defines the tithe as a form of taxation.]
Hubbard, Robert L, see Introductin to Biblical Inteerpretation (tithing)
Kaiser, Walter C. and Moises Silva, (tithing) An Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics [p14, 20, 33, 40, 116],
seminary textbook, pages, 187-188. 31-48 "Law based not on the nature of God but on his particular sayings on a special occasion
is called positive law. . . . The commandment about the Sabbath is the only one in the Ten Commandments that is mixed with
both moral and positive aspects. It is moral in that it says that God is owner of all time and therefore has a right to receive
back a portion of our time in worship of himself. But it is positive, or ceremonial, in that it spells out the seventh day
as that time."
[Like the Sabbath, there is a moral aspect of giving because God is the owner of all
creation and there is a positive, or ceremonial, aspect of giving in that the exact ten, twenty, or twenty three percent was
specified in the law for Israel.]
"The Scriptures themselves offer us a way of sorting out which commands have continuing
relevance for our lives and which ones have been rendered obsolete by God's having declared their usefulness to have ended.
Even though the law is one, we are taught in the Bible to distinguish at least three different aspects in that one law. Jesus
authorized such a stance when he used the concept in Matthew 23:23 that some things in the law were ?weightier' than others.
It is this ranking and prioritizing within the law that establishes the moral aspect of the law as higher than its civil and
ceremonial aspects. In this verse, justice, mercy and faithfulness are heavier and weightier than the rules for tithing spices,
evidently because the former reflects the nature and character of God." Page 279 122
Kennedy, James [p63], tithing pamphlet, Presbyterian TV preacher. Note: He takes a middle position that tithes should be paid on
whatever remains after all essential bills have been paid. See full discussion on this web site.
FOLLOWING IS NOT IN THE BOOK]
Here is the key to understanding Kennedy’s position. He first
wants his audience to read the previous statements which, very honestly, do NOT place him in the tithe-teaching camp at all!
He says “In light of these Biblical principles I encourage believers in Christ to tithe.”
1. The tithe was only from profit (no profit means no tithe). #1
2. The poor do not pay tithes. #2)
3. The poor receive tithes. #2
4. Those who have no
increase are not required to tithe. #2
5. Welfare recipients and those living
off savings should not tithe. #2
6. Our FIRST economic duty is to pay family
7. Tithe-payers can give it directly to
the poor if they choose. #4
8. Tithe-payers should only give SOME of
it to the local church. #4
9. Situation ethics determine whether or
not tithes should be paid (2)
10.“God wants you to assign a high priority
to taking care of family needs.)
11. Churches should allow tithes to be
paid in the form of work performed
12.Tithes are only on what is left after necessary
expenses and after taxes.
13.“In light of these biblical principles,
I encourage believers to tithe.”
William W., Craig L. Blomberg, and Robert L. Hubbard, Jr., Introduction to Biblical Interpretation [p206], seminary (tithing)
Word Publishers, 1993), 415."Just as poor people could offer less costly sacrifices in those days (Lev. 12; cf. Luke
2:24), so Christians should not require identical levels of giving from all believers today. In fact the N.T. does not promote
a fixed percentage of giving. We may better capture the spirit of N.T. giving through what R. Sider calls ?graduated tithe,'
by which the more one makes, the higher percentage one ought to give to the Lord's work, and especially to helping the
poor (1 Cor. 16:2; 2 Cor. 8:12-15)."
Lang, J. Stephen [p207], (tithing) ,1001 Things You
Always Wanted to Know About the Bible (Nashville: Nelson, 1992), 321. "The New Covenant urges generous giving proportionate
to one's income. Wealthy Christians were expected to give generously to aid the less fortunate brother in the faith."
Lenski, R. C. H. [p196], (tithing) ,The Active Church
Member (p. 161-164). Well-respected theologian, Wisconsin Lutheran.[SOME IN BOOK]
God has given
us His divine Law, and the spirit of Christ, which is the spirit of faith and love, freely uses God's Law as a regulator
of the Christian life. As Christians, however, we are under the Gospel, and that means that with faith and love we voluntarily
obey the Lord and seek to do His holy will. Legalism is the name for all spurious law in the church. It is both the setting
up of man-made laws in the church, and any obedience to such laws. ... No church has a right to make laws by which bind its
members; and no member has a right to obey such laws, and to allow his conscience to be thus bound. Both the church and the
church member are legalists when they operate their church activities this way. The state may legislate; not, however, the
church... Just as the Gospel alone rules in our hearts, so Gospel methods, or evangelical methods, should alone be used in
our church activities. These methods use the power of faith and love alone, and no outward force. Hence these methods have
the mark of Gospel freedom about them. The church member does what he does, of free will, gladly, gratefully, as a privilege.
That is the evangelical method? The evangelical Christian goes to church from love of Christ, His Word, and worship. Only
where the Lord sees this in the heart is He pleased? "no mere outward performance satisfies the Lord, least of all doing
what the Lord has nowhere Himself commanded. And worst of all, to try to buy His favor is to insult His blessed grace, through
which alone His savings gifts can be made ours. Legalistic methods look especially promising when it comes to getting money
for the church'" Why not impose a tax on the members, say a flat tax of so much per head, or a tax according to the
property of the members? Would not that insure the sum desired far beyond the evangelical method of voluntary Christian giving?
The trouble is, that though the money itself might be secured in such a legalistic way, the Lord has no use for it. The only
money He will accept must come as a true offering made unto Him by willing hearts in faith and love. Such offerings can be
gathered only by using evangelical methods, never by working legalistic ones.
(p. 175) Wrong
methods always tend to corrupt right principles, and thus hinder the blessings we ought to receive. Right methods support
true principles, help to show how beneficial they are, and thus win the approval and blessing of the Lord.
Lenski, R. C. H., The Interpretation of I and II Corinthians (p. 1170-1172). A large number have had no faith or too little
faith in complete voluntariness. They fear that this will not bring the needed and the desired sums. So they devise substitutes,
all kinds of systems, schemes, and methods that seem to promise more than the giver's own entirely free volition. Instead
of depending wholly on such volition and stimulating it by means of pure gospel motivation as Paul does here, they use a little
or great deal of legalism which acts as pressure, or they stoop to worldly, often rankly worldly, methods. So Christian voluntariness
declines more and more. The odor of legalism and of worldliness makes the 'gifts' so obtained nauseating in the nostrils
of God. The harvest of real blessings is lost? Tithing is Jewish. Applying a little Christian varnish changes nothing. Paul
was reared as a Jew. If tithing could have been Christianized, the man who could and would have done it was Paul, and no better
opportunity offered itself than this great collection which he planned for all his churches simultaneously. Paul shunned tithing.
All the apostles shunned it. Not one word of Jesus favors it. His very mention of tithing is severely derogatory (Mat. 23:23;
Luke 11:42; 18:12). The only other mention of it in the New Testament is purely historical (Heb. 7:5-9). Is this not enough?
More than enough! 'Each one just as he has chosen for himself in heart!'
R. C. H., The Interpretation of St. Matthew's Gospel (p.907-909):Although all of the apostles were originally Jews, reared in tithing, with
not one word did any one of them even intimate that in the new covenant the Christians might find tithing a helpful method
of making their contributions to the work of the church. This strong negative is immensely re-enforced by the totally different
method suggested by Paul when called on the churches for a great offering, 1 Cor. 16:1, etc.; 2 Cor. 8:4, etc. Exegetically
and thus dogmatically and ethically the New Testament is against tithing as a regulation in the new covenant. Desire for more
money also for more money in the church and for the church must not blind our eyes to the ways employed for getting more money?
Jesus does not want to be misunderstood.
Lion Encyclopedia of the Bible [p182, 197], page 218-221. Note:
This was originally called Eerdman’s Family Encyclopedia of the Bible.
the scribes probably had a trade. The writings of the rabbis mention a nail maker, a baker, a sandal maker, a master builder,
and a tailor."
Luther. Martin (Sermon; August 27, 1525): (tithing) [P139]
the other commandments of Moses, which are not [implanted in all men] by nature, the Gentiles do not hold. Nor do these pertain
to the Gentiles, such as the tithe..." For a full discussion see my article on my web site.
MacArthur, John [p54], (tithing) , pp53-54] God's Plan for Giving, Moody Press, 1985 Mega-successful church
builder, college founder, author, TV ministry.
"So when someone says the Jew gave ten percent, that isn't true. The Jew gave
twenty-three percent to begin with. It was for the poor people, the widows, and people who didn't have anything to eat.
So they were funding the people who ran the government, which were the Levites; they were providing for national feasts through
the festival tithe; and they gave for the welfare program. All this was funding for the national entity. All three of these
were taxation, not freewill giving to God. Tithing was always taxation so that the programs of the government could run: the
priestly program, the national religious program, and the welfare program" 76.
on the Book of Romans 9-16 (p.233) [NOT IN BOOK]
Christians are not under obligation to give a specified amount to the work of their
heavenly Father. In none of their forms do the tithe or other Old Testament levies apply to Christians.
Thoughts On Tithing (from sermon preached at Grace Community Church in Panorama City, CA):
basically, is never, ever advocated in the New Testament; it is never taught in the New Testament-never!
McGee, J. Vernon [p104]. Thru the Bible, Malachi, Presbyterian; well-respected author and radio preacher.
Metzger, Bruce and Michael D. Coogan, (tithing) , Oxford Companion to the Bible [p223], "The New Testament
nowhere explicitly requires tithing to maintain a ministry or a place of assembly." 259
Nelson's Bible Dictionary, tithe; (tithing) ,, Nashville: Thomas Nelson [p11]. "The law
of Moses prescribed tithing in some detail. Leviticus 27:30-32 stated that the tithe of the land would include the seed of
the land and the fruit of the tree. In addition the Hebrew people were required to set apart every tenth animal of their herds
and flocks to the Lord. . . . Nowhere does the New Covenant expressly command Christians to tithe. . ."
New Bible Commentary, (tithing) , Inter-Varsity Fellowship [p18,
25, 164, 197, 203, 240-242]
[Acts 18:1-4] "It was regarded as proper for a rabbi to practice a manual occupation
so as not to make monetary profit out of his sacred teaching."
[1 Thess. 2:9] "This policy [working night
and day] not only reflected a desire to be financially independent of those among whom they ministered, but it also marked
them off from the ordinary religious traffickers of the day, and showed the converts a good example."
Cor. 11:8] "Paul is really indicating that he did not receive wages at all for preaching the gospel. If what was given
him for his support by other churches was to be regarded as '?earnings,' then he had in effect ?robbed' them since
the service given was not to them but to the Corinthians" (italics mine).
Also, the priesthood was so fundamental to the Old Covenant between God and His people (the whole relationship was constituted
in dependence upon its ministry), that any change in the order of priesthood must of necessity imply and involve a change
in the whole constitution; i.e. it implies nothing less than an accompanying new, and indeed better, covenant. 179
New Bible Dictionary, Inter-Varsity [p120], tithe. (tithing)
,"The New Testament reference to the tithing of mint, anise, and cummin (Matt. xxiii, 23; Luke xi, 42) illustrates
a Talmudic extension of the Mosaic law, ensuring that '?everything that is eaten . . . . and that grows out of the earth'
must be tithed."
Qualben, Lars,[Lutheran] (tithing) , A History of the Christian
Church [p249, 251] Thomas Nelson, 1942 301 "The local church had elders and deacons who supervised and directed the work of
the congregation, administered its charity, took care of the sick, and saw to it that services were regularly held. But the
early church organization was not centered in office and in law, but in the special gifts of the Spirit. The teaching, the
preaching, and the administration of the sacraments were conducted by the'gifted men' in the congregation. An elder
might also teach, preach, and administer the sacraments, but he did not do so because he was an elder, but because he was
known to have the 'gift.' None of these 'gifted men' held church office in a legal or judicial sense. The
preaching, the teaching, and the administration of the sacraments were not legally confined to any specific office. The gospel
could be preached and the sacraments could be administered in the presence of any assembly of believers, gathered in the name
of the Lord."
"Toward the end of the first century a change took place. A general lack of confidence
in the special gifts of the Spirit, a desire for more specific order, and a pressing demand for proper safeguard against heresy
resulted in a gradual transfer of the preaching, the teaching, and the administration of the sacraments from the 'gifted
men' to the local elders. . . ."
"During the second and third centuries another important change took place. Instead
of government by a group of elders, the local churches were headed by single officials for whom the name 'bishop'
was exclusively reserved. . . . The election of the bishop became a legal ordinance and the bishop alone had a right to preach,
to teach, and to administer the sacraments. . ." (italics mine).
(tithing) , The Complete Book of Bible Answers [p297] (Peabody: Harvest, 1997), 296. "I do not believe
that Christians today are under the ten percent tithe system. We are not obligated to percentage tithe at all. There is not
a single verse in the New Testament where God specifies that we should give ten percent of their income to the church. . .
. We are to give as we are able. For some this will mean less than ten percent, but for others whom God has materially blessed,
this will mean much more than ten percent." 235
Ryrie, Charles (tithing)
, Ryrie Study Bible [p49], well-known theologian, Dallas Theological Seminary. .See also Basic Theology, p105; The Grace of God,
p63; 68, 69.
Schaff, Phillip, [Presbyterian] History of the Christian Church,
Vol II [p198, 249, 251, 259], world-famous istorian, Eerdmans Page 124: "In the apostolic church preaching and teaching were not confined
to a particular class, but every convert could proclaim the gospel to unbelievers, and every Christian who had the gift could
pray and teach and exhort in the congregation. The New Testament knows no spiritual aristocracy or nobility but calls all
believers "saints," though many fell short of this vocation. Nor does it recognize a special priesthood in distinction
from the people, as mediating between God and the laity. It knows only one high-priest, Jesus Christ, and clearly teaches
the universal priesthood, as well as universal kingship, of believers. It does this in a far deeper and larger sense than
the Old; in a sense, too, which even to this day is not yet fully realized. The entire body of Christ is called ?clergy,'
a peculiar people, the heritage of God."
Page 128: "With the exaltation of the clergy [in the third century] appeared the
tendency to separate them from secular business, and even from social relations. . . They drew their support from the church
treasury, which was supplied by voluntary contributions and weekly collections on the Lord's Day. After the third century
they were forbidden to engage in any secular business, or even to accept any trusteeship."
392: "The ascetic principle, however, was not confined, in its influence, to the proper ascetics and morals. It ruled
more or less the entire morality and piety of the ancient and medieval church."
395: "Among these works [of supererogation] were reckoned martyrdom, voluntary poverty, and voluntary celibacy. All three,
or at least the last two of these acts, in connection with the positive Christian virtues, belong to the idea of the higher
perfection, as distinguished from the fulfillment of regular duties or ordinary morality.
395: "The ground on which these particular virtues were so strongly urged might be easily understood. Property, which
is so closely allied to the selfishness of man and binds him to the earth, and sexual intercourse--these present themselves
as the firmest obstacles to that perfection, in which God alone is our possession, and Christ alone is our love and delight").
"The [Jewish Christian] Ebionites made poverty the condition of salvation."
396: "The recommendation of voluntary poverty was based on a literal interpretation of the Lord's advice to the rich
young ruler. . . . To this were added the actual examples of the poverty of Christ and his apostles, and the community of
goods in the first Christian church in Jerusalem. Many Christians, not only of the ascetics, but also of the clergy, like
Cyprian, accordingly gave up all their property at their conversion, for the benefit of the poor."
Scofield, C. I., (tithing) The New Scofield Reference Bible [p141, 144, 177-179], Oxford Press, 2 Cor 8 and
9: 270. "In contrast with the law, which imposed giving as a divine requirement, Christian giving is voluntary, and a
test of sincerity and love."
Silva, Moises, see under Kaiser, William C. (tithing)
Stuart, Douglas see How to Read the Bible For All Its Worth
Thompson, Rhodes, (tithing) Stewards Shaped by Grace [p62,
Chalice Press. Disciples of Christ/Christian Church. Page 122: "Some disagree that people are ever too poor
to tithe. But my experience in the Third World [India] and inner-city St. Louis exposed me to people whose poverty I had wittingly
or unwittingly helped to create and whose liberation from it still receives too little of my time and resources. Luke's
biting words to first century scribes and Pharisees jump across the centuries: ?Woe to you twentieth-century religious leaders!
For you load people with burdens hard to bear, and you yourselves do not touch the burdens with one of your fingers (Luke
1:46).' Watching poor folks in St. Louis facing the winter choice between 'meat' and "heat,' I could
not lay on them the burden of tithing that would have forced them to forego both at the risk of health and life."
Page 113: "Another discovery is now revealed: God's grace shown in those churches [in India] was complemented
by people's voluntary response [quotes 8:3]. Precisely! No legalistic response to the amazing grace of God is appropriate.
That is why Paul wrote [quotes 9:7]. God's grace obviously encourages, but does not force, the decision to be made. However,
when faith responds to grace, God's power at work within that life . . . or within the churches . . . is able to do far
more abundantly than all that people can ask or think (Eph. 3:20). What we cannot do or cannot even imagine being done, God's
grace working through our faith does."
Treasury of Scripture Knowledge, (tithing) The New, Jerome
(p. 1026.). The LORD commanded the Israelites to "Bring the whole tithe into the storehouse, that there
may be food in my house...." (Malachi 3:10) Christians are often urged to tithe based upon a mistaken appeal to
this Old Testament text, which is wrested out of its rightful context, when applied to such a purpose... The storehouse is
clearly the temple, not the church... Taken in context this passage lends no support to the mistaken doctrine of `storehouse
tithing,' whereby Christians have been directed to restrict all their financial giving to their own denomination or local
church, or as a variation, church members have been directed to pay the tithe to the local church, and restrict giving to
outside organizations to amounts over and above the church tithe.
(p. 1152.): Tithing is not taught in the New
Testament as an obligation for the Christian under grace... Because we are not under law, but under grace, Christian giving
must not be made a matter of legalistic obligation, lest we fall into the error of Galatianism?
Unger, Merrill, Unger's Bible Dictionary (tithing) [p12, 19, 119, 135, 144], Moody Press "Tithe":
"The tenth of all produce, flocks, and cattle was declared to be sacred to Jehovah by way, so to speak, of rent to Him
who was, strictly speaking, the Owner of the land, and in return for the produce of the ground . . . . Although the law did
not specify the various fruits of the field and of the trees that were to be tithed, the Mishnah (Maaseroth 1.1) includes
?everything eatable, everything that was stored up or that grew out of the earth. . .'" (italics mine). 12-11
"New Testament": 64-140 "Therefore, to understand the Gospels one must expect to be on legal ground up to the cross (Matt.
10:5-6; 15:22-28; Mark 1:44). . . . In understanding the New Covenant it also must be borne in mind that the full-scale revelation
concerning grace is to be found in the Epistles, not in the Gospels. . . . The Gospels do not present the doctrine of the
Walker, Williston, A History of the Christian Church [p149, 258],
seminary textbook, 3rd ed., (Charles Scribner's Sons: New York, 1970).
Page 83: "The early Jerusalem company were
faithful in attendance at the temple, and in obedience to the Jewish law, but, in addition, they had their own special services
among themselves, with prayer, mutual exhortation, and ?breaking of bread' daily in private houses. This ?breaking of
bread' served a twofold purpose. It was a bond of fellowship and a means of support for the needy." 160
Page 83: [ The church in the first centuries had a very different use for money than the typical church today. Williston
Walker reports that, in the year A.D. 251, the church of Rome under Bishop Cornelius had a membership of approximately 30,000
members and supported over 1,500 dependents. This amounts to one dependent per 20 members!] 136-310
84: "By the middle of the third century the higher clergy were expected to give their whole time to the work of the ministry,
yet even bishops sometimes shared in secular business, not always of a commendable character. The lower clergy could still
engage in trade." 311
Walvoord, John, (tithing) see Major Bible Themes, Revised
Walvoord, John and Roy B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary, . Dallas Theological Seminary.
Wycliffe Bible Commentary (tithing) [p11, 17, 41, 43, 71, 193, 203, 239, 240, 244], C. F. Pfeiffer and E. F. Harrison, Moody and
Southwestern Press [Gen. 14] "? Zedek' is the Hebrew word for ?righteousness' and also the name of a Canaanite
deity....?Shalom' is the Hebrew word for ?peace' and ?Shalem' probably was the Canaanite god of peace."
[Genesis 14 written by Kyle Yates, Ph.D., Baylor Univ., Southern Baptist)
[1 Sam. 8:14-17] "This is the only reference in the Old Testament to the exaction
of tithes by the king. However, in the East it was not unusual for the revenue of the sovereign to be derived in part from
tithes, as, for example, in Babylon and Persia."
"These ministrations were to be performed freely, without charge, for their authority had been received in this manner.
These instructions apply only to this specific mission of limited duration."
[Acts 18:1-4] "It was customary for Jewish rabbis not to receive pay for their teaching, and therefore, Paul,
who had been raised as a rabbi, had learned the trade of tent-making.
[Acts 20:34] "Paul reminded the Ephesians of his custom of making tents not only to support himself but to provide
for the needs of others with him. He quoted a saying of the Lord which is not recorded in any of the Gospels, about the blessedness
of giving. . . . The main objective of giving in the early church was to provide for the needs of the poor brothers rather
than to support the preaching of the gospel as is the case today."
[1 Cor. 16:2] "By him" is probably a reference to the home; giving was to be private giving. . . . This system
would revolutionize present church customs! Paul's carefulness in money matters should be noted. He never appealed for
money for himself and did not even desire to handle money for others if there could be the slightest question about it."
Wycliffe Bible Dictionary of Theology (tithing) [p173], Everett F. Harrison, Geoffrey W. Bromiley, and Carl F. Henry,
Orig. Baker's Dictionary, 1960
(Peabody: Hendrickson, 1999), s.v. "tithe."
of the N.T. writers, particularly Paul, regarding the present validity of the tithe can be explained only on the ground that
the dispensation of grace has no more place for a law of tithing than it has for a law on circumcision." 80-191
Zodhiates' Key Word Study Bible, Spiros [p144], "i.e. Malachi 3:7-15, p.1173: This passage is often used by those who advocate
"storehouse tithing"; that is, bringing the "tithe" into God's storehouse (the local church), rather
than giving it anywhere else. They suggest that gifts to ministries other than the local church should be above the "tithe."
Certainly the "storehouse" in Malachi represents the temple or a building in the temple complex. However, the OT
"tithe" or "tenth" cannot be reasonably equated with ten percent of gross salary or wages which most people
earn today. Above all, giving should be a matter between the Holy Spirit and the believer, not a regulation. The "tithe"
may be an adequate guide for determining how much some people could give (indeed, for many in a prosperous society, it is
probably an inadequate level), but the amount of giving must be a personal decision. The Apostle Paul wrote that God examines
the motives for the giving, not the amount (2 Corinthians 9:7).
Justin Martyr [p252] (150 AD) (tithing) "And
the wealthy among us help the needy. . . when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president
in like manner offers prayers and thanksgiving, according to his ability, and the people assent, saying Amen; and there is
a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given, and to those who are absent a portion
is sent by the deacons. And they who are well to do, and willing, give what each thinks fit; and what is collected is deposited
with the president, who succors the orphans and widows and those who, through sickness or any other cause, are in want, and
those who are in bonds and the strangers sojourning among us" (First Apology, chap. 67). Also compare
Dialogue with Trypho, chapters 17, 19, 33, 112.
Irenaeus [p254] (150-200 AD). (tithing) Did
not teach tithing. Against Heresies, book 4, chap. 13, para. 3 and chap. 18
Tertullian [p242] [Church Father] (150-220 AD), 304. (tithing)
Did not teach tithing.
(Marcion, book 4, chap. 27)
(Marcion, book 5, chap. 9).
[Apology, xxxix "Every
man brings some modest coin once a month or whenever he wishes, and only if he is willing and able; it is a freewill offering.
You might call them the trust-funds of piety; they are spent . . . on the support and burial of the poor. "
[The following more compete quote is not in the book.]
Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 3, page 46, quotation of Apology, chapter 39. "The tried men
of our elders preside over us, obtaining that honor, not by purchase, but by established character. There is no buying or
selling of any sort in the things of God. Though we have our treasure-chest, it is not made-up of purchase money, as of a
religion that has its price. ?On the monthly day, if he likes, each puts in a small donation; but only if it be his pleasure,
and only if he be able: for there is no compulsion; all is voluntary. These gifts are, as it were, piety's deposit fund.'
For they are not taken thence and spent on feasts, and drinking-bouts, and eating-houses, but to support and bury poor people,
to supply the wants of boys and girls destitute of means and parents, and of old persons confined now to the house; such,
too, as have suffered shipwreck; and if there happen to be any in the mines, or banished to the islands, or shut up in the
prisons, for noting but their fidelity to the cause of God's church, they become the nurslings of their confession."