MEDIA-PERSIA: BC 538 TO BC 331
Dan 8:3 a RAM which had two horns: and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last.
Dan 8:4 … became GREAT.
Dan 8:20 The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of MEDIA and PERSIA.
GREECE: BC 331 TO BC 64
ALEXANDER THE GREAT
Dan 8:5-6 an he GOAT came from the WEST on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground: and the goat had a NOTABLE HORN between his eyes.
EGYPT, SYRIA, MACEDONIA, GREECE
Dan 8:8 Therefore the he goat waxed VERY GREAT: and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up FOUR NOTABLE ONES toward the four winds of heaven.
Dan 8:21 And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king.
Dan 8:22 Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power.
ANTIOCHUS IV EPIPHANES
Dan 8:9 And out of one of them came forth a LITTLE HORN, which waxed EXCEEDING GREAT, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.
Dan 8:10 And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them.
ONIAS III: BC 171-164
Dan 8:11 Yea, he magnified himself even to the PRINCE of the host, and by him the DAILY SACRIFICE was taken away, and the place of his SANCTUARY was cast down.
Dan 8:12 And an host was given him against the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practised, and prospered.
Dan 8:23 And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.
Dan 8:24 And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power: and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practise, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people.
Dan 8:25 And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many: he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand.
Dan 8:13 HOW LONG shall be the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot?
Dan 8:14 Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed/restored.
Dan 8:26 And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told is true: wherefore shut thou up the vision; for it shall be for many days.
Dan 8:17 O son of man: for at the time of the end shall be the vision.
Dan 8:19 what shall be in the last end of the indignation: for at the time appointed the end shall be.
Dan 8:27 … I was astonished at the vision, but none understood it.
Notes: Although the little horn of Daniel 8 is not the same as the little horn of Daniel 2, they blend. Daniel 8 and 11 are primarily discussions of the Syrian-Seleucid ruler, Antiochus IV Epiphanes who incited a civil war which resulted in Jewish independence from BC 164 until
Rome conquered it in BC 64.
Matt 24:15 When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand:)
Although the Jewish nation recognized the fulfillment of Daniel 8 and 11 by Antiochus IV and celebrated its victory over him, Jesus assigned to it a second and third fulfillment – a second in AD 70 and a third in the last days with the final Antichrist and Beast of the tribulation. Therefore the persecution under Antiochus in Daniel 8 and 11 is a type of worse persecution to follow.
The kingdom of Persia was GREAT. The kingdom of Greece was VERY GREAT. And the kingdom of the little horn was EXCEEDINGLY GREAT. This would suggest hat the little horn of Daniel 8 was pagan Rome and not Antiochus IV.
However the little horn is not described as an entirely new kingdom but as a continuation of one of the horns of the Greek kingdom. It must be remembered that prophecy described the greatness of the kingdoms, not from the world view, but from the perspective of Israel. In Israel’s viewpoint, the persecution of Antiochus was “exceedingly greater” than that of his predecessors.